What Is Health Cancer?

  • Health Cancer  is a leading cause of death worldwide, claiming nearly 10 million lives in 2020, or approximately 1 in 6 deaths.
  • The most common types of health cancer are breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer.
  • About a third of cancer deaths. High body mass index (BMI). Alcohol use, low intake of fruits and vegetables. And lack of physical activity.
  • Carcinogenic infections, such as human papillomavirus infection and hepatitis, account for approximately 30% of cancer cases in low- and lower-middle-income countries.
  • Many types of cancer can be cured if detected and treated early.

Cancer is a general term that includes a wide range of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Cancers are also called health cancer malignant tumors and neoplasms. A hallmark of cancer is the rapid generation of abnormal cells that grow outside their usual boundaries and can then invade neighboring parts of the body and spread to other parts of the body. The latter process is called metastasis. And widespread metastases are the leading cause of death from cancer.

The problem at hand

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, claiming 10 million lives in 2020. (1) Here are the most common types of cancer in 2020 (in terms of new cancer cases):

  • breast cancer (2.26 million cases);
  • lung cancer (2.21 million cases);
  • colorectal cancer (1.93 million cases);
  • prostate cancer (1.41 million cases);
  • skin cancer (other than melanoma) (1.20 million cases);
  • and stomach cancer (1.09 million cases).
  • Here are the most common causes of death from cancer in 2020
  • lung (1.80 million deaths);
  • the colon and rectum (916,000 deaths);
  • liver (830,000 deaths);
  • stomach (769,000 deaths);
  • and breasts (685,000 deaths).

Cancer affects approximately 400,000 children annually. The most common types of cancer differ between countries, and cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer in 23 countries.

What are the causes of cancer?

Normal cells evolve into neoplastic ones in a multi-stage process that progresses slowly from a precancerous lesion to a cancerous tumor. An individual’s genetics have interacted with three categories of external factors, including:

  • Carcinogenic physical agents, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation;
  • carcinogenic chemical agents, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, alcohol, aflatoxin (a food pollutant), and arsenic (a pollutant in drinking water);
  • and biological carcinogens, such as infections caused by certain viruses, bacteria, or parasites.

The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies cancer-causing agents through its agency for cancer research, the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Incidence rates of cancer rise sharply with age, likely due to the accumulation of risk factors for certain types of cancer, which increase with age. The accumulation of cancer risk is associated with a tendency for the effectiveness of cell repair mechanisms to decline as a person gets older

All types of cancer risk factors

Tobacco and alcohol use, an unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, and air pollution are major risk factors for cancer and other non-communicable diseases.

There are some chronic infections that are risk factors for developing cancer; It is a particularly prominent problem in low-  Health Cancer and middle-income countries. About 13% of cancers diagnosed. Worldwide in 2018 were caused by a carcinogen. Including Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus. Hepatitis B and C viruses, and Epstein-Barr virus (2).

Hepatitis B and C viruses and some types of HPV increase the risk of developing liver and cervical cancer, respectively, while HIV infection increases the risk of cervical cancer by six times, and significantly increases the risk of some cancers. Others are selected, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Reducing the burden of cancer

Currently, between 30% and 50% of cancer cases can be prevented. By avoiding disease risk factors. And implementing Health Cancer existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The burden of cancer. Treatment and care, knowing that the chances of recovery from. Many types of cancer increase if they are diagnosed. Early and treated appropriately.

Cancer prevention

Cancer risk can be reduced by:

  • quitting tobacco use;
  • maintaining a healthy body weight;
  • Fruits and vegetables form part of a healthy diet;
  • get regular physical activity;
  • avoiding or reducing alcohol use;
  • avoiding exposure to ultraviolet rays (caused primarily by exposure to sunlight and/or artificial tanning beds) and/or applying sun protection measures;
  • limit exposure (as much as possible) to ionizing radiation (through occupational or medical diagnostic imaging);
  • Reducing exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution. Including radon gas (a radioactive gas produced by the natural decay of uranium. Which can be exposed in homes and buildings).

early diagnosis

Cancer diagnosed early is more likely to respond to treatment, which can increase survival and reduce morbidity, as well as the costs of expensive treatment. Cancer patients are able to live longer and feel better by detecting the disease early and treating it without delay.

Here are the three components of early diagnosis:

  • Being aware of the symptoms of cancer in all its forms. And the importance of seeking medical advice when unusual results are observed;
  • access to clinical assessment and diagnosis services;
  • Refer the patient in a timely manner to obtain treatment services

Early diagnosis of symptomatic cancers is important in all settings and for most types. Programs should be designed. In such a way as to reduce and overcome delays in diagnosis. Treatment, and supportive care.

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Screening aims to identify individuals whose screening results indicate that they have a certain type of cancer or a pre-existing stage before their symptoms appear. If 

Screening programs are effective for some, but not all, cancers, and are generally more complex and resource-intensive than early Health Cancer diagnosis because they require special equipment and specialized staff.

The selection of patients to be included. In screening programs is based on age and risk factors to avoid. Health Cancer Studies that are excessive in their false positive results. Examples of screening methods include:

  • HPV testing (including DNA testing and HPV mRNA testing) as the preferred methods of screening for cervical cancer cases;
  • and mammography to screen for breast cancer in women aged 50-69 years who reside in places with robust or relatively robust health systems.

Both screening and early diagnosis programs need to be of quality assurance.

treatment

Correct diagnosis of cancer is indispensable for its proper and effective treatment because each type of cancer requires a specific course of treatment, and its treatment usually includes surgery, radiotherapy, and/or comprehensive treatment (chemotherapy, hormonal therapies, targeted biological therapies). The correct choice of treatment course takes into account the type of cancer and the individual undergoing treatment alike. It is necessary to complete the treatment protocol within a specified period of time to achieve the expected therapeutic result.

Determining the desired goals of treatment is one of the first important steps, and the main goal, in general, is to treat cancer or extend the life of the patient to a large extent. Improving the patient’s quality of life is also an important goal that. Psychological, social, and moral well-being and providing him with palliative care in the final stages of his cancer.

Some of the most common types of cancer, such as breast cancer. Cervical cancer, oral cancer, and colorectal cancer. And treated according to best practice.

The cure rates for some types of cancer, such as seminal duct tumors and various types of leukemia and lymphomas that affect children, are also higher if their patients are provided with appropriate treatment, even if the cancerous cells have spread to other parts of the body.

However, there is a wide variation in the rates of treatment availability between countries of different income levels; Reportedly, universal treatment is available in more than 90% of high-income countries, but less than 15% of low-income countries (3).

palliative care

Palliative care is a treatment that relieves, rather than cures, symptoms caused by cancer and improves the quality of life for patients and their families. The Palliative care can help people live more comfortably. And it’s much needed in places where the proportion of. Patients with cancer in the late stages. Thanks to palliative care, the physical. Psychological, social, and moral suffering of more. 

Effective and comprehensive home and community-based public health strategies are indispensable to providing patients and their families with pain relief and palliative care.

Improved access to oral morphine for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain. Which affects more than 80% of people. 

organization response

In 2022, the World Health Assembly passed the Resolution Preventing and controlling cancer in the context of an integrated approach (WHA70-12) urging governments and WHO to accelerate action to achieve the targets set out in the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013-2022 and the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to reduce premature deaths from cancer.

WHO and the International Agency for Research on Cancer cooperate with other organizations of the United Nations, including the International Atomic Energy Agency, and partners to:

  • increasing political commitment to cancer prevention and control;
  • coordinating and conducting research on the causes of human cancer and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis;
  • cancer burden monitoring (within the framework of the Global Initiative on Cancer Registries);
  • identifying “best buys” and other cost-effective priority strategies for cancer prevention and control;
  • developing standards and tools to guide planning and implementation of interventions for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, Health Cancer triage and treatment, and provision of palliative and survivor care for both adult and pediatric cancers;
  • strengthening health systems at the national and local levels to help them improve access to cancer treatments;
  • establishing a work program on cancer prevention and control in the WHO Cancer Report 2020;
  • taking a global leadership role as well as providing technical assistance to support Governments. And their partners in developing and maintaining high-quality cervical cancer. Control programs in the context of the implementation of the global strategy to accelerate cervical cancer elimination;
  • improving breast cancer control activities and reducing preventable deaths. Focusing on health promotion, timely diagnosis. Health Cancer And access to care to accelerate coordinated implementation through the WHO Global Initiative on Breast Cancer;
  • support governments to improve the survival rates of children with cancer through targeted country support, regional networks, and global action under the WHO Global Initiative on Childhood Cancer, leveraging the Cure-All approach ;
  • increasing access to essential cancer medicines, including through the Global Platform for Access to Children’s Cancer Medicines;
  • and providing technical assistance for the rapid and effective transfer of best practice interventions to countries.

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Alfie Theo
Alfie Theo
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